In the Levallois stone tool making technique, named after the Paris suburb where tools of this type were first identified, large flakes struck from a prepared core were used as tools. Chunks of flint were first knapped to produce an oval core, on which a striking platform was created by removing a large flake. A large tool flake was then removed by striking the platform. The remainder is called a tortoise core because it resembles a tortoise shell. The size and shape of the tool flake was easily controlled using the levallois technique, allowing the knapper to produce any of several different tools. Levallois technology persisted from over 300,000 to less than 200,000 years ago in Europe, Africa and the Middle East, used by both Neanderthals and early Modern Humans. [pdp].